HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities) played a crucial role in the history of American education, although some critics try to marginalize the vast accomplishments. However, while some of these critics also question their importance in 21st century America, HBCUs vital and necessary than ever.
When the first HBCUs founded before the Civil War (1861-1865) – Cheney State University (formerly the Institute for Colored Youth in the aftermath Richard Humphreys (1750-1832), a Quaker philanthropist moved to Philadelphia in the 1829 race riots PA bequeathed $ 10,000 (estate 10/01) to set up a school, “the descendants of the African race”), the first HBCU, 1837 in Philadelphia, Lincoln University (originally Ashmun Institute) near Philadelphia in 1854. (John Miller Dickey (1806-1878), a minister of the Reformed) as the first HBCU to get a higher education art and science of black men and Wilberforce, the first private HBCU an underground station (free fleeing slaves to the “bondage of ignorance”) in Wilberforce (founded the members of the Methodist Episcopal Church and abolitionist William Wilberforce, named after the 18th century (1759-1833)), Ohio, in 1856. “it was illegal to teach blacks to read and write”, as literate blacks were regarded as “dangerous” to society. 
Consequently, prior to the start of the Civil War, the Black illiteracy rate exceeds 95% majority of illiterate blacks are concentrated in the Northeast. Also, due to the absence of schools to deal with the spiritual needs of nearly every pre-Civil War era black culture he was self-taught.
After the Civil War, the first HBCU era (1865-1915) began when laws prohibiting black education involved. HBCUs exploding number of ambivalence and even outright hostility (translated Jim Crow racial segregation laws came into force in 1876 and remained frozen until 1965) was the defeated South.
overwhelming demand for education freed slaves and their families (if still intact), who were locked in the mostly white institutions, including the vast majority of the northern (until the 1950s and 1960s), HBCUs (churches established missionary groups and philanthropists) has begun perhaps the greatest transformation in the history of education. Out of the previously subjugated population of more than 4 million per Kenneth Ng, redistribution of wealth, race and the Southern Public Schools, 1880-1910 (Education Policy Analysis Archives May 13, 2001), “Black had a significant academic achievement.” Black education rose 10% in 1880 and 50% by 1910 and 70% in 1915. Given the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), establishing a “separate but equal” doctrine that led to the reality of black people in double, worse, under-funded segregated schools and oppressive southern racial laws of the era, the realization of many was partly a wonderful HBCU efforts – Ng’s words ” a performance rarely seen in human history. ”
The staggering rise in black culture was mainly due to HBCUs instead of or in addition to the elementary and secondary schools set up in accordance with Plessy v. Ferguson. Before the 20th century, many HBCUs had to provide elementary and secondary education before college prep-type courses, students were able to continue the college some focus only on the black males (eg Morehouse founded College in Atlanta, GA in 1867, the alma mater Nobel peace prize recipient and civil rights leader Martin Luther king, Jr. (1929-1968)), while others only black female (eg, Spelman College, founded a church basement in Atlanta, GA in 1881, which ranked the recent # 1 a poll of “social mobility because of an impressive 77% graduation rate). HBCUs in general not to pursue a single secondary education until after the 1900 presidential Per George HW Bush in January 1991,” at a time when many schools barred their doors to black Americans, these colleges offered the best and often the only opportunity for higher education. “
After the significant progress Black literacy, the second HBCU era (1916-1969) focused on creating a Black professional and middle class. The efforts, but met serious obstacles. was less blacks financial resources to utilize these professionals and fewer whites were interested in the service. during this time, so ensure that the economic benefits of blacks would originating degree HBCUs, per Ronald Roach, history and contributions to Black College celebration (Black Issues October 21, 2004) shifted the focus of the liberal arts that between industrial and lively discussions after the training teacher, writer, orator Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), (Hampton University (Hampton, VA) graduate and past president of Tuskegee University), who is considered the best opportunities for blacks to “achieve equality through … it was through the accumulation of power, wealth, respect and hard work in practice [vocational] profession” and sociologist, historian, author WEB DuBois (1868-1963), who believed that “equality and a sense of purpose can only be if talented blacks were allowed to study the art and science” in addition professions. 
Ironically, however, the successful culmination of the civil rights movement in 1968 that earned the blacks the right to vote, broke down the barriers of segregation and offered against an important defense of racial discrimination and the new opportunities that really threatened HBCUs lead in the third period (one of the threats to their viability and even survival, despite the fact that state aid to the higher education Act III of 1965), the percentage of black enrollment plummeted. From 1965-1969, about 80% -99% of blacks enrolled in HBCUs. From 1970-2010, less than 10% of blacks enrolled in HBCUs many taking advantage of non-isolated state and private institutions, community colleges and two-year institutions.
This is the era of the decline in financial difficulties (especially non-state funded institutions), and the transition in which some have (such as West Virginia State University) and the relevance of getting a majority white institution, not surprisingly, it caused disputes and yet there remains a need HBCUs, and concentrate on their mission, and even relevance in the 21st century America. The fact remains though – HBCUs are necessary and important than ever, the continuing critical role to ensure that it is very important that the words of US Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-MD), as recounted by Dr. E. Lee Lassiter , Coppin national Salute article dated the role HBCU selected September 1, 2006, “every child a chance to succeed, and to ensure that they are in the 21st century … thinking skills and jobs of the 21st century.”
every demographic group except whites and Asians regressed in terms of academic achievement for generations, it is essential to focus on minority education HBCUs. Per John Silvanus Wilson, Jr., American Historically Black Colleges and Universities and the Third Transformation (The Presidency. The American Council on Education. Winter 2010) academic achievement between generations of all species has barely improved to 35.5% of all individuals 25-29 acquires college vs. 34.9% of all persons 30 or older (partly propelled many Asians – 66.3 vs. 54.5% of 25-29 year olds and 30+% of whites – 41.8% of 25-29 year–year-olds vs. 38.0% of 30+ year olds). Among the figures it was disappointing, depressing that when it came to blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians. Blacks suffered the least erosion 24.3% of 25-29 earning a college degree vs. 24.6% of the 30+ age group. bachelor’s degree earned 16.8% vs. Hispanics age 25-29 18.1% of the 30+ and only 16.3% of American Indians (the target group formed by the formal establishment of HBCUs led Hampton University educational program is geared to their needs in 1878), the 25-29 age group earned a bachelor’s degree, compared to 21.7% figure for the 30 years and older.
On the other hand, the US Department of Education Office for Civil Rights more than 80% of blacks who degree in dentistry and medicine had two HBCUs (Howard University, Washington, DC, and Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN) It specialized in these fields. Currently both schools makes 19.7% of all medical and dental degrees awarded Black students. In addition, training HBCUs accounted for 75% of black officers in the US armed forces, 75% of blacks PhD, 80% of blacks holding a federal judgeship positions and 50% of black faculty members teach traditionally white institutions.
Third, HBCUs continue to be at the forefront of Black students seeking degrees in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), which is extremely important as degrees in STEM fields (which are essential if the United States to remain competitive in the global, technology-based economy), it decreased significantly over the last 10 years (over 22% -26% of the students receive a bachelor’s degree in computer science and mathematics), a 70% increase in the 18 -24 year olds to continue this minority students standing area (including a 19% increase attributed to African Americans in this age group) as refueling education reform: Historically black Colleges meets the National Science Dunning Steve Suitts (Southern education Foundation, Atlanta, GA, July 3, 2003) as well as the respect of the senior students who pursue graduate and doctoral studies. With this in mind, an era of renewal of HBCUs is likely to depend on the emphasis on STEM subjects.
Further provided benefits to smaller class sizes than the available traditional universities (which is a personal experience), community service options (such as mentoring elementary, secondary school, and high school students and assisting charitable organizations) that enrich the students and community members, and the opportunity to graduate school and recruiters human resources are looking for, in the words of Jeff McGuire in the historic black College & University: a proper historical black colleges for you (College View, december 18, 2009), “diversity and talent are not able to find elsewhere.”
final important reason is that HBCUs keep their critical roles in a positive atmosphere and a deeper focus on African-American and minority cultural and historical contributions and the fact that they have provided to minorities in (many experienced people from discrimination or inequality part of a lifetime, Civil Rights era of including birth after because of the 1980s and 1990s) higher self-esteem come from a wide range of socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, and the availability of support and restore / maintain networks when experiencing academic challenges. In the words of Cedar Lawrence, a recruiter in Fort Valley State University (Fort Valley, GA) provides an atmosphere of HBCUs, which can be “very open discussion of issues facing people of color … solutions to make things better” in a family atmosphere without worrying about “what people think racial “and / or other stereotypes.
In summary, HBCUs are important and necessary in 21st Century America. Their course offerings in the STEM fields, smaller class sizes, repair / storage / support networks, diversity and openness, HBCUs critical not only in urban America, but every community in today’s and tomorrow’s knowledge-based technological society. HBCUs are essential to ensure equal opportunities and a bright future for students of all races especially because of the continuous efforts and contributions ways to deal with the socio-economic barriers that discourage and eventually mentally and spiritually and economically set back the whole race. The rich in the history of HBCUs clearly demonstrates that they continue to have a strong tie to ensure that every dream, regardless of economic class and race, there is at least a realistic chance to achieve.
 Lakisha Heard. illiteracy among African-Americans. December 18, 2009 Http://www.oppapers.com/essays/African-American-Literacy/261112
[1945901million]  The History historically Black Colleges and universities: The tradition-rich history. College View. 18 December 2009 [http://www.collegeview.com/articles/CV/hbcu/hbcu_history.html]